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Abbreviations and acronyms should usually be spelled out on first reference. A company's full legal name should also usually be used on first reference.

Abbreviations in parentheses, after the spelled-out first reference, where you plan to use the abbreviation on second reference, are acceptable.

CAPS, PERIODS/FULLSTOPS: Generally, omit full stops or periods in acronyms unless the result would spell an unrelated word. Most abbreviations of more than two letters do not take periods. But use periods in most two-letter abbreviations: U.S., U.N. (Exceptions include: EU, UK )


Form the plural of abbreviations by adding a lower-case “s” without an apostrophe: ICBMs, not ICBM’s.

AFTER A NAME: Abbreviate company, corporation, incorporated and limited when used after the name of a corporate entity. See Style Guide entries under these words and company names. In headlines, do not use periods in abbreviations, unless required for clarity.

WITH DATES OR NUMERALS: Use the abbreviations A.D., B.C., a.m., p.m., No., and abbreviate certain months when used with the day of the month. See STyle Guide entry on months.

STATES: The names of certain states and the United States are abbreviated with periods in some circumstances. See U.S. state names and datelines

MONTHS: Do not use full stops or periods when abbreviating the names of months in datelines. The style is Jan, Feb, March, April, May, June, July, Aug, Sept, Oct, Nov, Dec. In tabulated lists, use only the first three letters for all months. Abbreviate names of months in text when they are used with a specific date: Jan. 19. See entry on datelines.


British English for what in American English is called a slaughterhouse


Do not use when referring to Indigenous Australians. It is considered offensive, but may be used in quotes on a case-by-case basis. As an adjective, use Aboriginal, which should always be capitalised. The terms Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander can also be used to denote those specific Aboriginal groups.

Aboriginal Peoples

In Canada, includes all Indian, Métis and Inuit people. First Nations is also uppercase. Other variations—indigenous people, aboriginals (except for Aboriginals of Australia [See Aborigine]), native peoples—are lowercase.


Unless quoting someone, refer to aborted foetuses rather than unborn babies. Describe those campaigning for a woman’s right to have an abortion as “abortion rights campaigners” and those campaigning against abortion rights as “anti-abortion campaigners.” Terms such as pro-choice, pro-life and pro-abortion are open to dispute and should be avoided. Avoid abortionist, which connotes a person who performs clandestine abortions.


See ABS.

academic degrees

Avoid an abbreviation and use instead a phrase such as: John Jones, who has a doctorate in psychology. Use an apostrophe in bachelor's degree, a master's, etc., but there is no possessive in Bachelor of Arts or Master of Science. Use such abbreviations as B.A., M.A., LL.D. and Ph.D. only when the need to identify many individuals by degree on first reference would make the preferred form cumbersome.

Academy Awards

Presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences of America. Also known as the Oscars. (Both Academy Awards and Oscars are trademarks.) While “Best Director” (etc.) is not the official name of the award, follow common usage and capitalise.


Do not use accents or diacritical marks in English copy as they can cause technical problems for some clients.


Avoid as a verb unless in the context of computing and electronics.


As a rule, we do not reprint rumors or untrue statements or statements we believe to be untrue. Should we need to report the fact that a public official has made an unsupported or extreme statement, we need to distance ourselves from the statement and make clear that the news is that the person made the statement and then make every effort to set the record straight. We should be sure to include the context in which the person spoke.


To avoid the suggestion of presumed guilt before a trial, avoid phrases like "accused killer" and use a less emotive phrase like "Joe Bloggs, accused of the murder of.."

Achilles tendon

No apostrophe for the tendon connecting the back of the heel to the calf muscles. But use Achilles' heel, with an apostrophe.


Avoid where possible and replace with nouns such as “the committee,” “the organisation,” “the inquiry.” When used, acronyms should usually be spelled out on first reference. Use capital letters for acronyms of five letters and fewer: ASEAN, but longer acronyms are often used with intial capital only, e.g. Anacafe (Asociación Nacional del Café).


Do not capitalise before a title: acting Chairman and Chief Executive Paulo Georgio unless it is a formal title.


Actor is appropriate for man or woman.


Use A.D. for most dates in the western calendars. For example, A.D. 73.

additional/in addition to

Use “more” or “and.”


Use the abbreviations Ave., Blvd. and St. only with a numbered address: 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. Spell them out and capitalize when part of a formal street name without a number: Pennsylvania Avenue. All similar words (alley, drive, road, terrace, etc.) always are spelled out. Capitalize them when part of a formal name.


Use sparingly. Inject colour into copy with strong verbs and facts first. If you have more than two adjectives before a noun, rewrite the sentence. A reader struggles with “the one-eyed poverty-stricken Greek house painter.” Avoid adjectives that imply judgement: “a hard-line speech,” “a glowing tribute,” “a staunch conservative.” Depending on where they stand, some people might consider the speech moderate, the tribute fulsome or the conservative a die-hard reactionary. 

When using an adjective and a noun together as an adjective, hyphenate them if it helps to avoid a realistic ambiguity: “a sliced egg sandwich” could mean two things; “a happy birthday card” cannot; “a blue-chip share,” “high-caste Hindus.” By extension, adverbs that end in “-ly” paired with adjectives modifying nouns do not need hyphens, since adverbs cannot modify nouns: “a poorly planned operation” cannot be misconstrued to mean an operation that is poorly and that is planned.


Always lowercase: the Bush administration.


Use with care. If you say someone admitted something, you imply that it had previously been concealed or that there is an element of guilt. “Said” is usually better.


Refer to a child’s adoptive status only when the fact is clearly significant. Use the term “birth mother” to refer to the woman who gave birth to a child, if a distinction must be made with the woman who raised the child. ”Birth father” and “birth parent” are also preferred style. Do not use “real” or “natural” to describe parents or children. Avoid loaded and dated phrases such as “give away a child,” “give up for adoption” and “unwanted child.” “Adoptive” as an adjective can refer to parents or the general subject of adoption. Try to describe actions instead of creating labels such as “adopted child,” e.g,. “Hollywood actress Sharon Celebrity, who gave birth to a daughter on Friday, has two other children. She adopted Shenandoah, 4, and Alfalfa, 2, during her previous marriage to actor Tim Hunk.” Be wary of cultural bias or value judgements in covering international adoptions and disputes over parental rights involving families from different cultures or socioeconomic backgrounds.


See ADR.

advance planning

A tautology. Also avoid pre-planning.


Like adjectives, they should be used sparingly. Avoid adverbs that imply judgement, e.g., “generously,” “harshly,” “sternly.”


Use "adviser", not advisor.

And use advisory when writing about U.S. proxy advisory firms, following U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission usage, even though the relevant US law is called the "Investment Advisers Act" of 1940.

affect, effect

Affect, as a verb, means to influence or to produce an effect. Avoid affect as a noun, though it is sometimes used as psychology term to mean an emotion. Effect as a verb is to accomplish something or produce an effect, usually used with an object. Effect as a noun is a result, consequence.


The term for the people and culture of Afghanistan. Afghani is the Afghan unit of currency.


Acceptable for an American black person of African descent. Also acceptable is black. People from Caribbean nations, for example, generally refer to themselves as Caribbean-American. Follow a person's preference. See race


Prefer “results.” Use “after” rather than “in the aftermath of…”


German company title: abbreviation of Aktiengesellschaft, a joint-stock company.


“Aggravate” means to make worse. Do not use in the sense of “to irritate.”


Use numerals for all ages: the 5-year-old boy. With a proper name use, "Bloggs, who is 75,” or “Bloggs, 75.” In many countries it is illegal to identify a defendant under the age of 18. Use sensitivity and be guided by local legal rules.

aged, elderly

Avoid, because the terms are always relative. In some societies a 50-year-old is aged. In others a sprightly 90-year-old who has just written a novel or run a marathon would object to being called aged or elderly.



agnostic, atheist

An agnostic is a person who believes it is impossible to know whether there is a God. An atheist is a person who believes there is no God.

aid, aide

Aid is assistance. An aide is someone who serves as an assistant.


Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The term “AIDS” applies to the most advanced stages of HIV infection. The initials AIDS and HIV are used at first reference, with the full name given lower in the story. Do not write “HIV virus,” which is redundant.

air bag

Air bag is two words. An inflatable safety device in a car or automobile.

air-condition, air-conditioned

The verb is to air-condition; the adjective is air-conditioned; the noun is air conditioner or air conditioning.

aircraft, airplane

Most airliners and military aircraft are jets, so there is normally no need to specify that a plane is a jet (but be sure not to confuse fighters and bombers). Capitalise the names of aircraft: Concorde, Tomcat. When the number designating an aircraft is preceded by a letter or letters, hyphenate, e.g., Boeing 747 but DC-10, F-111. 

Be specific when giving aircraft models in economic stories because there are cost differences, e.g., Boeing 747-400, not just Boeing 747. Use makers’ names in the form given in Jane’s All the World’s Aircraft, e.g., MiG-21. Give numerals for aircraft speeds, e.g., Mach 1, not Mach one. Aircraft names use a hyphen when changing from letters to figures, no hyphen when adding a letter to figures, e.g., F-15 Eagle/747B, but Airbus 3000 is an exception.

air crashes

When reporting an air crash the first priority is to establish the airline and aircraft involved, the flight number and route, and the number of passengers and crew, with estimates of casualties. Also check on weather conditions in the crash area. Use discretion in describing a crash scene as bodies may be dismembered with entrails hanging from trees. Be very wary of statements from sources attributing blame to any parties such as pilots, passengers, aircraft manufacturers, or terrorists, as such claims may well be viewed as defamatory and result in legal action. The causes of crashes usually take time to establish by the authorities and are often different from early conjecture, resulting in litigation by insurers and other parties.


Usually one word airfare.

Air Force One

This is the radio call sign of any fixed-wing aircraft used by the president of the United States. The U.S. Marine Corps is responsible for presidential helicopter support. Marine One is the radio call sign of any helicopter used by the president.


Transportation of persons or cargo by air, especially in an emergency. Do not use as a synonym for “fly,” e.g., “The injured man was airlifted to hospital.” Reserve it for shuttle services: “The United States airlifted 50,000 troops to the Gulf.”

air strike

Two words.


Al-Aqsa is the mosque built in the 8th century atop the Haram al-Sharif, or Noble Sanctuary, in the Old City of Jerusalem. Arabs also use Al-Aqsa to refer to the whole area, which houses the Dome of the Rock shrine, also. To Jews the area is known as the Temple Mount, the site of the ancient Jewish temples.

Al Jazeera

Middle East satellite television news network based in Doha, Qatar. Al Jazeera America is a sister network broadcast and based in the United States.


The Arabic name for God in Islam.

al Qaeda

Use al Qaeda, no hyphen. Created by Osama bin Laden in the late 1980s, al Qaeda ("The Base") is a militant movement that supports violent attacks on the West, Israel and governments in Muslim countries allied with the West that it believes prevent the creation of a “pure” Islamic world.

Al Qaeda is used by different people to mean different things. When authorities speak about an "al Qaeda plot," we should try to pin down whether they mean it was ordered and directed by "core al Qaeda" or generally inspired by the anti-Western ideology of bin Laden. (Note: Reuters style is al Qaeda, AP style is al Qaida )

all right, alright

Usually two words in formal English meaning well, safe, correct. Alright tends to be informal in usage.

all-time, all time

The greatest singer of all time, but an all-time low. Do not write “an all-time record”; it is simply a record. Ensure that superlatives such as “all-time high” are checked and sourced.

Allahu akbar

“God is Greatest” (not, as often written, “God is Great,” a common Muslim rallying cry. Also chanted when Muslims perform their five daily prayers.


Usually used to mean to assert without proof. Specify the source of the allegations. Use of the word “alleged” before a defamatory statement does not provide immunity against an action for libel. Avoid “allegedly”; often "apparent", "ostensible", or "reputed" is better

allude, refer

To allude to something is to speak of it without specifically mentioning it. To refer is to mention it directly.

allusion, illusion

Allusion means an indirect reference. Illusion means an unreal or false impression.

alpine, Alpine

Lower case if pertaining to any mountainous region. Upper case if referring specifically to the Swiss Alps or Olympic Games Alpine skiing.


alt-right - lowercase, no quote marks. A loose grouping characterized by a rejection of mainstream politics that includes neo-Nazis, white supremacists and anti-Semites. Avoid using the term generically and without definition, because it is not well known outside the U.S. and the term is political jargon that tends to obfuscate beliefs and perhaps make racist or fascist views more acceptable to a wider readership.


An altercation is an argument or heated exchange of words, not a fight.

alternate, alternative

Alternate means that A and B take turns; alternative means you have a choice between A and B. There can be only two alternatives; any more and you face choices, options or possibilities.


Convert metres to feet, not yards, when giving altitudes.

Alzheimer's disease

A progressive, irreversible neurological disorder and the most common form of dementia. Most victims are older than 65, but Alzheimer's can strike in the 40s or 50s.


Ante meridiem, or before noon e.g. 6 a.m.


Use for a man or a woman.

American and American Indian

As a noun this may be used to mean a U.S. citizen. North American includes Canadians. Latin American includes people from Mexico to Argentina, apart from the Caribbean. South American excludes citizens of Mexico and Central America.

American Indian is acceptable, but Native American (capitalised) is preferred, bearing in mind that this includes, e.g., Inuit, who are not Indians. Where possible, be more specific and give the name of the tribe (e.g., Navajo, Cherokee). See race.

America's Cup

The sailing trophy, named after the yacht America.


Not “amidst,” but journalese in any case, although sometimes hard to avoid in headlines. Usually we mean “because of,” “due to,” “in,” or “over.” Or consider recasting: “Consultants said developers were bidding more cautiously amid a softening private-residential market and rising construction costs” is stronger as “A softening private-residential market and rising construction costs are making developers bid more cautiously.” Where preserving the sense of “in the middle of” is desired, “as,” “during” or “in” can usually be substituted: “The protests became more violent amid visits from U.N. officials who were investigating claims of human rights abuses/The protests became more violent as U.N. officials were in the country investigating…”

among, between

“Between” is restricted to two choices or two parties. “Among” is for several options or parties. Use “between” in referring to bilateral contacts, e.g., relations between France and Germany. Use “among” for a collective linkage, e.g., “relations among the NATO states.” Be careful to use “between” if there are just two groups to choose from, even though it looks like several, e.g.: “It was hard to decide between a touring holiday in France, Belgium and Spain or in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania” or, “It was hard to decide among a holiday in France, in Belgium or in Spain.”

amuck, amok

Usually amuck in British English and amok in American English. To lose self control and run about wildly.


As a source this so vague that it does not help the reader to have confidence in the authority of a Reuters story. Be as specific as possible - "diplomatic analysts", "miltiary analysts", "money market analysts". See Sourcing section of the Handbook.

anchor, anchorman, anchorwoman, co-anchor

Acceptable when referring to the main broadcaster on a radio or television show.


Do not start a sentence with “and.”

Anglican Church

The Anglican Communion is an international association of churches consisting of the Church of England and of national and regional Anglican churches. With a membership currently at 85 million members worldwide, the Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. Some of these churches are known as Anglican, such as the Anglican Church of Canada. Some, for example the Church of Ireland, the Scottish and American Episcopal churches, and some other associated churches have a separate name. The Archbishop of Canterbury, known as the Primate of All England, has a precedence of honour over the other bishops of the Anglican Communion.


Use the neutral pronoun "it" for animals unless their sex is clear. "The dog bit its owner", but "the stallion tossed his head", and "Judy the parrot escaped from her cage".

annual meeting

Lowercase. For companies, use “annual meeting,” not “annual general meeting.”

anonymous sources

Whenever possible, Reuters pursues information on the record. When a source insists on background or off-the-record ground rules, we must adhere to a strict set of guidelines. See the guidelines on sourcing and ethics in the Reuters Handbook.


Avoid when you are trying to say “additional” or “extra.” It should be used only when referring to things of the same type, size and number—e.g., “Two teams were at full strength; another two were short of players.”

antennae, antennas

Antennae are insect feelers. Antennas are aerials.

Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty

ABM Treaty on second reference.

anticipate, expect

Not synonyms. If you anticipate something, you not only expect it but take precautionary action to deal with it.


Antifa is a largely unstructured, far-left movement whose followers broadly aim to confront those they view as authoritarian or racist. Use this explanation when the term appears in a story. Antifa, short for anti-fascists, should not be referred to as an organization. It has no official leadership. Do not describe demonstrators as leaders or members of antifa. Do not capitalize unless the word begins a sentence.


In U.S. and some other jurisdictions, any law or policy designed to encourage competition and curtail monopolies and unfair business practices.

anti-virus, anti-spyware

anxious, eager

“Anxious” means uneasy with fear or desire. Prefer “eager” if the promised experience is desirable. I am anxious about going to the dentist but eager to go the party.

any more, anymore

”Any more” (two words) means “no more”; “anymore” (one word) means “now” or “currently.” e.g., “I do not have any more stories to edit”; “I don’t edit stories anymore.”


Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, a forum aimed at promoting regional trade and economic cooperation. The group comprises 21 Pacific Rim countries.

app or application

Short for application and acceptable on first reference. Application software (app or application) is computer software designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities. Examples include a word processor, a spreadsheet, an accounting application, a web browser, a media player, an aeronautical flight simulator, a console game or a photo editor. By contrast system software is mainly involved with running the computer itself.

appreciation, depreciation

An increase or decrease in the financial value of an asset such as stocks, bonds, property etc.

April Fools' Day

In English culture, April 1 is a day when practical jokes are played on April fools.


Use the apostrophe according to the following guidelines:

Singular words and plural words not ending in an "s", form the possessive by adding " 's ", e.g., "Boeing's new airliner", "the children's books".

There is usually no problem with words ending in "s", e.g., "the class's performance", "the princess's return", "Schultz's car". However, some words would look or sound odd, e.g. "Jesus's sermons", or "Tunis's main prison", so try to write around the problem. Recast such examples as, "the sermons of Jesus", or "the main prison in Tunis".

For singular proper names ending in “s,” use only an apostrophe: "Gates’ tenure"; "Kansas’ schools". "Reuters’ early decades", but "Reuter’s birthplace in Kassel".

Plural words already ending in " s " form the possessive by adding the apostrophe alone, e.g., "the soldiers' weapons".

Add " ’s " for plurals of a single letter: “They were all given A’s.” Do not add for plurals of numbers or multiple letter combinations: "the 1980s", "RBIs".

Note that " it's " is an abbreviation of "it is". The possessive form of the pronoun is " its ".


“About” is shorter and simpler. So is “almost” or “nearly.”

appraise, apprise

To appraise is to put a value on, to apprise is to inform.

Arab names

Reuters style is to end Arab names in “i” rather than “y”, e.g., Ali, not Aly; Gaddafi, not Gaddafy. The words “al” and “el” both mean “the.” They are usually in lower-case and followed by a hyphen. (But al Qaeda, al Shabaab are exceptions). Reuters prefers al- to el- but should use el- if that is how the person spells his or her name in English. In personal names starting al- or el-, include the particle only on first reference, e.g., Syrian President Bashar al-Assad on first reference, thereafter Assad. In place and other names, the particle is retained on second reference, e.g., al-Arish, (the newspaper) al-Akhbar. Particles that go in lowercase are ait (Mohamed ait Atta), bin and bint (Aziza bint Ahmed), ben (Ahmed ben Bella), bar, bou and ould (Moktar ould Daddah). See also sheikh.

Arabian Gulf

See Gulf.

arbitrator, arbiter, mediator

An arbitrator or arbiter is appointed to make a decision and hand down a ruling. A mediator tries to produce a compromise agreed to by both parties in a dispute.

Arctic Sea, arctic chill

Uppercase when referring to geography (Arctic Circle); lowercase to describe the cold (arctic wind). Also use uppercase when referring to the weather phenomenon that originates within the Arctic Circle (e.g. Arctic vortex).

Argentina, Argentine

Argentine is the preferred term for the people and culture of Argentina. Avoid “Argentinian” as an adjective.

aristocratic titles

Capitalise when they accompany a personal name, otherwise use lower case, e.g. "the Duke of Edinburgh", "the Marquis of Bath", but "the duke" and "the marquis". Note that British dukes, earls, marquises, viscounts, barons and life peers, are referred to collectively as "peers", not "lords". See also Nobility.


Only capitalise for specific armies: the U.S. Army, the Palestine Liberation Army, the Red Army. Use figures for military units: 1st Army, not First Army. Only used defence force as part of a proper title like Israeli Defence Force, otherwise use army or armed forces.


Use “about” for approximation “about 30,” not “around 30.”


To avoid prejudging the issue, do not write “arrested for murder.” Instead, write “arrested on a charge of murder. See also allege.


An overused conjunction, especially in leads, to link two developments that may have only a distant connection and may occur in different time frames, e.g., “Jones issued new threats against Ruritania as Brown considered his options in the region.” Use with restraint, preferably when actions are both contemporaneous and closely linked, e.g., “Brent futures slipped below $108 a barrel as data showing a fall in China's exports added to fears of a slowdown in the world's No. 2 economy.”

as, like

“As” compares verbs, “like” compares nouns. He fought as a hero should, but he acted like a hero.


Jews of East or Central European descent as opposed to Sephardim who are Jews of Spanish or Portuguese descent. Adjectives, Ashkenazic and Sephardic.

Asian subcontinent

Don’t use. Instead, use “South Asia” for the region that includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

assassin, assassination

An assassin is one who kills a politically important or prominent person. Use the term only if it involves the murder of a politically important or prominent individual by surprise attack.

at the present time, at this time

Use “now.”


Electronic cash dispensing machines. Spell out on first reference as Reuters writes for the world, then use ATM, but note that “ATM machine” is tautologous.


Not a formal title: lowercase.

attorney, attorney general

In American English an attorney is what in British English is called a lawyer. Similarly, the British English term barrister is called a trial attorney in American English. An attorney general is the chief law officer of a country or state. The plural is “attorneys general.” However, for the plural possessive, make it “the attorney generals’ arguments.”


Reuters news stories must attribute or source facts that are not confirmed by our own news gathering process or not accepted as general knowledge. Reuters must credit newspapers, websites, broadcasters or blogs when they break a story and Reuters matches or develops it. See the section on Sourcing in the Handbook.


There are various kinds of auction.

English or primary auction: Also known as an open ascending price auction. The most common type in use today. Participants bid openly against each other with each bid required to be higher than previous bid. The auction ends when no participant is willing to bid further, at which point the highest bidder pays their bid. If the seller has set a "reserve price" or minimum price which is not met, the item remains unsold.

Dutch auction: Also as an open descending price auction. The auctioneer begins with a high asking price and the price is lowered until a participant is willing to accept the auctioneer's price or until the seller's reserve price is met. If the first bidder does not purchase the entire lot, the auctioneer continues lowering the price until all of the items have been bid for or the reserve price is reached. In a modification, all of the winning participants pay only the last announced price for the items that they bid on. The Dutch auction is named for its best known example, the Dutch tulip auctions. In addition to cut flower sales in the Netherlands, Dutch auctions have also been used for perishable commodities such as fish and tobacco.

Sealed first-price auction or blind auction: Also known as a first-price sealed-bid auction (FPSB). In this type of auction all bidders simultaneously submit sealed bids so that no bidder knows the bid of any other participant. The highest bidder pays the price they submitted. This type of auction is distinct from the English auction, in that bidders can only submit one bid each. Furthermore, as bidders cannot see the bids of other participants they cannot adjust their own bids accordingly. What are effectively sealed first-price auctions are commonly called tendering for procurement by companies and organisations, particularly for government contracts and auctions for mining leases.

Australian Labor Party

Not "Labour", even though the usual British English spelling is "labour", not "labor".


Never “authoress.” Avoid as a verb.

autumn, fall

Autumn in British English, fall in American English. If the seasonal reference is unclear, use autumn.


Place the word “average” where it correctly qualifies the item or quantity intended. “Reporters drink an average of six cups of coffee a day” -- not “The average reporter drinks six cups of coffee a day”. 

An average is calculated by adding all the constituent parts together and dividing by the number of parts. The average can also be called the mean. There are also the median, or middle value, with the number of values above it is the same as the number below it, and the mode, or the most commonly occurring value.

“Average” takes a singular or plural verb according to what it refers. The average age is 24, but an average of three men die each day.

awhile, a while

I will rest awhile, or I will rest for a while.

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