each and every

“Each” will do, or “every.”


Generally lowercase, but capitalise “Planet Earth.”


The are several scales for measuring earthquakes including the Richter scale, the Mercalli scale and the Japanese Shindo scale. Richter measures a quakes general magnitude; Mercalli describes its intensity as shown by its effect at a particular place. The U.S. Geological Survey favours “magnitude” which gives readings similar to the Richter scale. Magnitude is not an automatic guide to likely damage. This depends on other factors such as the depth of the quake below the earth’s surface. The strongest quake ever measured was 9.5 magnitude in Chile in May 1960, while there are more than 1 million minor tremors of 2 to 2.9 magnitude every year. 

The epicentre is a point on the earth's surface above the subterranean centre, or focus, of an earthquake.

The best source for information on major earthquakes is the National Earthquake Information Center, operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, in Golden, Colorado.

Online sources:





Magnitudes are usually reported simply as magnitude 6.7, for example. Hyphenate as a compound modifier: magnitude-6.7 quake. In the first hours after a quake, earthquake size should be reported as a preliminary magnitude of X.X. Early estimates are often revised, and it can be several days before seismologists calculate a final figure.

A quake of magnitude 2.5 to 3 is the smallest generally felt by people. –Magnitude 4: The quake can cause moderate damage. –Magnitude 5: The quake can cause considerable damage. –Magnitude 6: The quake can cause severe damage. –Magnitude 7: A major earthquake, capable of widespread, heavy damage. –Magnitude 8: An earthquake capable of tremendous damage.

Quakes are divided into three categories: shallow, intermediate and deep. Shallow quakes are at depths of less than 70 km (43 miles) and are the ones that have broader damage. Intermediate quakes are between 70 km and 300 km in depth (43 miles to 186 miles) and deep are deeper than 300 km (186 miles).

The deadliest quake on record occurred in Shaanxi province of China, Jan. 23, 1556. It killed 830,000 people, the largest number of fatalities on record from an earthquake.

NOTABLE QUAKES since 1900, according to the U.S. Geological Survey's list, based on magnitude or amount of damage and arranged by number of fatalities:

–July 27, 1976, Tangshan, China, magnitude 7.5. Official casualty figure is 255,000 deaths. Estimated death toll as high as 655,000, 799,000 injured and extensive damage in the area. This is probably the greatest death toll from an earthquake in the last four centuries, and the second greatest in recorded history.

–Jan. 12, 2010, Haiti, 7.0. More than 300,000 people were killed, 300,000 injured, 1.3 million displaced, about 105,000 homes destroyed and 208,000 damaged in the Port-au-Prince area and much of southern Haiti, according to government estimates.

–Dec. 26, 2004, Sumatra, 9.1. This is the third-largest earthquake in the world since 1900 and the largest since the 1964 Prince William Sound, Alaska, earthquake. In total, 228,000 people were killed or were missing and presumed dead in 14 countries due to the quake and ensuing tsunami.

–Dec. 16, 1920, Haiyuan, Ningxia, China, 7.8. Total destruction in the Lijunbu-Haiyuan-Ganyanchi area. Estimated death toll of 200,000.

– Sept. 1, 1923, Kanto, Japan, 7.9. Extreme destruction in the Tokyo-Yokohama area from the earthquake and subsequent firestorms, 143,000 dead.

–Oct. 5, 1948, Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, 7.3, 110,000 killed.

–May 12, 2008, Eastern Sichuan, China, 7.9, 87,600.

–Oct. 8, 2005, Pakistan, 7.6, 86,000.

–Dec. 28, 1908, Messina, Italy, 7.2, 72,000.

–May 31, 1970, Chimbote, Peru, 7.4, 70,000.

–June 20, 1990, Western Iran, 7.4, 40,000 to 50,000.

–May 22, 1927, Gulang, China, 7.6, 40,900.

–Dec. 26, 1939, Erzincan, Turkey, 7.8, 32,700.

–Jan. 13, 1915, Avezzano, Italy, 7.0, 32,610.

–Dec. 26, 2003, Southeastern Iran, 6.6, 31,000.

–May 30, 1935, Quetta, Pakistan, 7.6, 30,000.

–Jan. 25, 1939, Chillan, Chile, 7.8, 28,000.

–Dec. 7, 1988, Spitak, Armenia, 6.8, 25,000.

–Feb. 4, 1976, Guatemala, 7.5, 23,000.

–Jan. 26, 2001, Gujarat, India, 7.6, 20,000.

–March 11, 2011, Japan, 9.0, quake and tsunami killed more than 18,000, displaced 450,000 and caused radiation leaks from damaged reactors at a nuclear power plant.


A Christian holy day commemorating the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Christians believe Jesus was raised from the dead three days after his crucifixion. Western Christian churches and most Orthodox Christian churches follow different calendars and observe Easter on different dates.

Eastern Orthodox churches

The term applies to a group of churches that have roots in the earliest days of Christianity and do not recognize the papal authority of the Roman Catholic church. Churches in this tradition were part of the undivided Christendom that existed until the Great Schism in the year 1054. At that time, many of the churches in the western half of the old Roman Empire accorded the bishop of Rome supremacy over other bishops and the result was a split between eastern and western churches. The autonomous churches that constitute Eastern Orthodoxy are organized along mostly national lines and recognize the patriarch of Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) as their leader. He convenes councils, but his authority is otherwise that of a "first among equals." Eastern orthodox churches include the Greek Orthodox Church and the Russian Orthodox Church. In the United States, organizational lines are rooted in the national backgrounds of various ethnic groups, such as the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, and the Orthodox Church in America, which includes people of Bulgarian, Romanian, Russian and Syrian descent.


A virus that causes a severe and often fatal illness. It is named for a river in the Democratic Republic of Congo in Africa where one of the first outbreaks of the disease occurred in 1976. About two dozen outbreaks have occurred in Africa since then. The one that began in early 2014 is by far the largest.

Ebola virus comes from wild animals and then spreads person-to-person through direct contact with an infected person or contaminated materials. Symptoms can include sudden fever, muscle pain, headache, sore throat, vomiting, diarrhea, rash, kidney or liver problems and bleeding. People are not infectious until they develop symptoms, and the incubation period is two to 21 days.

No specific drugs or vaccines are approved to treat Ebola but some experimental ones are being tested. Early supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, can improve survival odds.




Acceptable as a reference to the bacteria Escherichia coli O157:H7.

economic indicators

The main economic indicators used by most countries attempt to track economic growth, industrial production, employment, inflation, international trade and the money supply. Good economic reporting is about identifying trends in these factors. So Reuters reporting should always provide comparisons between the current period and the relevant prior period as well a measure of the change. Highlight significant trend changes and any potential government policy response. Inform the reader if the data is provisional or revised or seasonally adjusted.

Eid al-Adha

A Muslim holiday marking the climax of the annual pilgrimage (haj) on the 10th day of the 12th month of the Muslim calendar.

Eid al-Fitr

A Muslim holiday marking the end of the fasting month of Ramadan, the ninth month of the Muslim calendar.


Use Republic of Ireland.


“Either” is a choice between two things. “You can have ice cream, cake or pudding.” Not, “You can have either ice cream, cake or pudding.” Do not use “either” when you mean “each.” “He had a beautiful girl on each arm, not on either arm.”


Avoid, because the terms are always relative. In some societies a 50-year-old is aged. In others a sprightly 90-year-old who has just written a novel or run a marathon would object to being called aged or elderly.


Hyphenated and lowercase. President-elect Frederick Green.


Singular if it is a single parliamentary election, plural if several votes are taking place contemporaneously. A general election in a country such as Britain is singular, but when the United States votes on the same day for a president, and members of the Senate and the House of Representatives, these are elections.


Indicate the omission of words from a quoted passage by using three full stops with a space before and after, e.g., “We will fight ... and we will win.” The word after the dots is capitalised if it is part of a new sentence, e.g., “We will fight and we will win ... We will never surrender.” You may drop words in this way only if the deletion does not alter the sense of the quote.


Usually superfluous, as demonstrated by context: “Police are hunting an elusive killer.”


But other compound words prefixed with e- should be hyphenated: “e-commerce,” “e-banking.”

embargo, boycott

An embargo is a legal ban on trade. A boycott is the refusal of a group to deal with a person or use a commodity.


News does not just emerge, so it is nonsense to write, “It has emerged that ...” Give the reader a clear source for your information.


Symbols including cartoon faces, hand gestures, food and animals, etc., often used on mobile devices such as smartphones. They can be used instead of words or as illustrations in text messages and in social media posts. Plural: emojis. Distinguish from emoticon which is a typographical cartoon or symbol generally used to indicate mood or appearance, as :-)

emotive words

Some words have emotional resonance, or their definitions are highly debatable, or are vague, so should be used with special care in the interests of neutrality and accuracy. Bear in mind that the unqualified use of words like "extremist", "guerilla", "insurgent", "militant", "radical", "terrorist", mean different things in different contexts.

One man's "terrorist" can be another man's "freedom fighter". One man's insurgent may be another man's lawful ruler driving out a usurper. Do you brand a guerrilla attack on a bus as terrorist but not the indiscriminate bombing of a village by government forces ?

Try to use more neutral or more specific words that describe what happened factually: "gunman", "shooter", "bomber", "hijacker".

See also "extremist" [[1]] See also 'fundamentalist" [[2]] See also "Islamist" [[3]] See also "jihadi" [[4]] See also 'leftist" [[5]] See also liberal [6] See also "militant" [[7]] See also "radical" [[8]] See also "terrorist" [[9]]


Do not use “England” as a synonym for Britain or the United Kingdom. Britain comprises England, Scotland and Wales. The United Kingdom comprises Britain and Northern Ireland. Use “Britain” unless the Irish context is important. Use United Kingdom only to emphasise the inclusion of Northern Ireland with England, Scotland and Wales or if hard-pressed for headline space. See UK.

epidemic, pandemic

An epidemic is the rapid spreading of disease in a certain population or region; a pandemic is an epidemic that has spread worldwide. Use sparingly; follow declarations of public health officials.


See EPS.

equal, equitable

The adjective "equal" has no comparatives. "A more equal distribution of wealth" should be "a more equitable distribution of wealth".


Or "e-reader" or "e-book reader". Devices used to display books or other written material in digital form electronically.

escalate, escalation

In most cases, “rise” or “increase” would be simpler and as effective for both verb and noun. “Escalate” may be used when we are talking of a step-by-step increase.


Do not use to refer to the people of northern Canada, who use the term “Inuit” to describe themselves. There are about 56,000 Inuit in Canada. They live in an area from Labrador to Alaska. The singular is Inuk, the language is Inuktitut.


When referring to economic trends and business performance, use “estimate” to refer to an approximate calculation of performance up to the present (or a date in the past). Use “forecast” when referring to expected future performance based on available data. Use “projection” to refer to probable future performance based on current trends or assumptions of likely developments.

estimated at about

Tautology. “Estimated at” will do.

Ethiopian names

The word “ato” means Mr and should not be used. Use only the first name at second reference, e.g., “Mengistu Haile Mariam – Mengistu said ...”


See race.

ethnic cleansing

Euphemism for a campaign to eliminate an unwanted ethnic group or groups from a society, as by genocide or forced emigration.The term became popular in former Yugoslavia during the 1990s to whitewash atrocities of warring ethnic groups, then usage spread to other conflicts. Given its emotive nature, Reuters avoids using "ethnic cleansing" on its own unless in direct quotation. Use more specific descriptive terms for the actions or policies or events involved.


Euphemism, beloved of politicians and bureaucrats, seeks to cloak reality, sometimes unpleasant, in innocuous words. Good journalism should shun euphemism. Write "cheap", not "low-cost"; 'elderly people", not "senior citizens"; "poor", not "disadvantaged"


If used on first reference, spelling out European Union in next. The Treaty on European Union, commonly known as the Maastricht Treaty, came into effect on Nov. 1, 1993, and formally created a new entity, the EU, with responsibilities expanded beyond the European Community’s focus on economic and trade issues.

euro, euro zone

Reuters uses euro zone (two words).


Reuters capitalizes first letter, Eurobond, as we do with U.S. Treasury and Bunds. A bond issued by a country in a currency other than its own. These bonds are frequently grouped together by the currency in which they are denominated, such as eurodollar or euroyen bonds. Issuance is usually handled by an international syndicate of financial institutions often based in London on behalf of the borrower, one of which may underwrite the bond, thus guaranteeing purchase of the entire issue.


the grouping of finance ministers from euro zone countries (not EU finance ministers, which is a bigger group).


Do not use as a synonym for white in a racial context.

European names

Use lowercase for particles within a personal name, e.g., F.W. de Klerk, Maurice de la Haye, Richard von Weizsaecker, Miguel de la Madrid, Ramon da Silva, Jaime Aragon y Galicia, Hendrik van den Berg. The particles are usually retained at second reference, but in German usage the von is dropped. Uppercase is used when such particles occur at the beginning of a geographical name, e.g., Las Palmas, El Salvador, La Raya del Palancar or at the start of a sentence, e.g., “De Klerk said ...” See also Spanish and Portuguese names.


Lowercase eurosceptic is now the preferred spelling, even though American English often spells sceptic as skeptic. A person, usually a politician, who is opposed to closer links with the European Union.


Prefer “result.”


A tautology when it follows a superlative (as in biggest, best, strongest, etc). In such cases, drop it unless in direct quotes.


Make sure this prefix is hyphenated to the word it limits. Note the difference between a Conservative ex-minister and an ex-Conservative minister. Prefer “former” in written text , e.g., “Former Brazilian finance minister Jorge Braga was killed on Tuesday when...” “Ex-” may be used for brevity in headlines, e.g., “Ex-minister killed in Brazil air crash.”


It means to make bitter or more violent, not to make worse.


Use this shorthand for academic examinations only.


Use only for lawful killings after due judicial process.

exchange rates

Normally quote only a single rate for the value of one currency against another, usually the middle rate between the bid and offer quotations. For example, if the bid and offer rates of a particular currency against the dollar were 2.6050 and 2.6150 we would take the difference between the two (0.0100), halve it (0.0050) and add to 2.6050. This gives a rate of 2.61. If the difference is an odd number, quote as near to the midpoint as possible. In foreign exchange market reports, give the bid and offer rates. 

Rates are generally carried to four places right of the decimal, except for yen, which goes to two places. However, if both bid and offer are round numbers at fewer decimal places, leave off the extra zeros. Do not repeat recurring numbers when giving the second rate in the sequence, e.g., 1.4845/65, not 1.4845/4865, except when the rate moves to a new higher digit, e.g., “The dollar rose to 1.4895/4905 marks from 1.4850/60 at yesterday’s close.” Money market rates and yields are generally quoted in decimals, so if a trader talks of a 6-1/4 per cent yield, this is best written in copy as 6.25 per cent.

exclamation mark or point

Avoid other than in quotations.


The U.S. Export-Import Bank of the United States is the official export credit agency of the United States federal government. EXIM on second reference is acceptable, as the agency itself uses that abbreviation, as do some other media. Associated Press uses Ex-Im Bank on second reference.

expect, anticipate

These are not synonyms. If you anticipate something, you not only expect it, but also take precautionary action to deal with it.


A person who goes to extremes particularly in terms of political actions, practices or doctrines. Try to avoid as extremist is probably even more vague in meaning than other debatable or emotive words like radical or terrorist. Try to be more specific about what the person does or believes - "gunman", "bomber, "hijacker", "protester" etc.


Prefer “witness.”

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